By: Greg Pignataro
As a follow-up to last week’s piece about fat loss, we’re going to broaden our focus this time. In order to help you structure a workout program or determine whether the one you’re currently following is right for you, there are three vital principles your exercise regimen must follow. A proper program must feature:
These three components are vital whether your goal is to look better, feel better, become stronger, run faster, improve your endurance, or anything else, really. The consistency component almost completely depends on you, while progressive overload has more to do with the program’s design. Adequate recovery relies on both you and the program.
With that in mind, know that any program featuring each of these three components can and should yield the results you want. However, if it’s missing even one of the three, your progress will slow and eventually cease altogether. Let’s examine each one of these three key pieces in more detail, shall we?
This principle is simple. Complete the program as written. If your workout routine calls for three workouts per week, work out three times per week. If you regularly complete two workouts one week, then four the next week to make up for it, your results will suffer. This is true even if your monthly workouts average out to roughly the same number of sessions per week. The tough love truth is, if you don’t follow a program at least 90% as prescribed, you forfeit any right to claim that it “didn’t work.” Exceptions can obviously be made if you are taking time to recover from injury, but a major goal of proper training is to avoid injury, so this shouldn’t be a frequent concern. In the end, remember this maxim, “The best program is the one you’ll stick to.”
2. Progressive Overload
This principle basically means that your body won’t change if you don’t challenge it. If you do the exact same workouts for months on end, your body will adapt and you will stop seeing improvements. To paraphrase multiple strength coaches from my past, “If you’re lifting the same exact weights you did six months ago, why the heck would you expect to look and feel any different than you did back then?”
With that in mind, allow me to elaborate about how progressive overload works. If you’re lifting weights, you can do any one of the following to increase the challenge over time:
If your workouts are more cardio-focused, you could
Clearly, there are a multitude of ways to follow the principle of progressive overload. However, I must stress that the increases must be gradual and manageable.
To illustrate, let’s suppose you can run 3 miles at an 8 minute pace and your goal is to run them at a 7 minute pace. Next time you run 3 miles, try running them at a 7:55 pace, not a 7:30 pace. Or, if you can squat 95 pounds for 5 reps, next time try squatting 100 pounds for 5 reps; don’t get ahead of yourself and try to squat 150 pounds.
Sidenote: Progressive Overload and Strength
One other key point to note is that you must make sure your body can adequately perform the movements you’re learning. Don’t change exercises so often that your body is constantly forced to attempt new ones. This is important because when you first start working out, most of the gains in strength you make are neurological. Your brain is coding new movement patterns, learning how to recruit previously underutilized muscle fibers, and increasing your body’s efficiency at making these muscle fibers contract harder and more quickly than they could before.
These are all important neurological adaptations, because they decrease the likelihood of injury when performing exercises of any kind. Then, once all of this change has occurred and your body has reached a point of proficiency with a movement, your muscles can start to grow. The previously trendy concept of “muscle confusion” has fallen mostly out of favor. To make a change in your body, you simply need to challenge it little by little with familiar exercises and properly performed movements, not give it something totally new every single time you work out.
3. Adequate Recovery
This is arguably the most important principle of the three. Why? Put simply, you could have a perfectly designed program and stick to it 100%, but still not see any progress if this principle isn’t followed. When working out, whether it be with weights or cardio, you are stressing your body. It isn’t so much the work in the gym that makes you stronger, it’s more what you do after you’ve completed them. Your workouts send your body signals that it needs to adapt to the demands you’re placing upon it. By consuming an adequate amount of food, getting enough sleep, and minimizing stress, you will put your body in a position to rebuild itself stronger than it was prior to the previous workout.
For a specific example of this principle not being followed, let’s suppose you have fantastic workouts but follow them up with eating only 800 total calories per day, getting 3 hours of sleep, and putting yourself under copious amounts of stress. If any one of these three conditions is true, you will start to feel, look, and physically perform noticeably worse, not better. So, prioritize your recovery. Seven to nine hours of sleep per night is crucial, as is an adequate intake of calories and minimizing stress where possible.
Tying it all together
There truly are a wide variety of workout programs that will yield the results you’re after, which makes it difficult to make an accurate judgment call about which type of training is “better” than any other. The truth is, if your program follows the above three principles and you enjoy doing it (or at least don’t hate it), then for you, it’s a great program. As long as you stick with it, gradually ramp up the challenge over time, and take care of your body afterwards, you’re on the path to powerful and lasting change.
By: Greg Pignataro
When most people say something like, “I want to lose weight,” what they really mean is, “I want to lose fat.” This is a key distinction, because simply decreasing the number on the scale won’t tell you whether the weight you’ve lost is muscle (bad), fat (good), or water/waste (temporary).
Why lose fat? Doing so can increase your levels of energy, decrease your risk of adverse events like heart attacks and hypertension, and increase your overall physical performance for activities of daily living and athletic endeavors.
Losing muscle, on the other hand, can decrease your levels of energy and make you feel weak and tired. So, it is a good idea to prioritize fat loss over muscle loss.
How do we go about doing this? According to Dr. Bill Campbell, Director of the Performance & Physique Enhancement Laboratory at the University of South Florida (also one of the foremost researchers in weight loss in athletes), there are three key principles that must be followed. At Grindset, we call these the...
Three Golden Rules of Fat Loss
1. Weight loss must be slow.
The ideal rate of weight loss is 0.5% of body weight per week. For example, this means a 200 pound person can only lose 1 pound per week. While this may not seem like much, weight loss at this pace ensures your body doesn’t perceive itself as starving. When food intake is restricted too much, your body sees this as a threat to its mortal wellbeing, and starts to hold on to the energy-rich, easy to maintain fat stores while shedding the energy-hogging, hard to maintain muscle. This is the opposite of what most people are trying to achieve.
To ensure that the vast majority of weight lost is fat, make sure that weight is lost slowly. Even losing a half pound of fat per week will lead to over 25 pounds of fat loss in a year. That much loss will make a noticeable positive difference in anyone’s appearance, energy levels, and physical capabilities.
Final note, sometimes you can experience fat loss despite weight gain, as with Instagram user yolaforthewin. She is 13 pounds heavier in the photo on the right, with the gain in weight coming from increasing her muscle mass. Clearly, she has also lost fat despite the number on the scale going up. Losing fat while gaining muscle in this manner is known as “body recomposition.”
2. You must continue (or start) to strength train.
Strength training provides a stimulus to your body to build muscle rather than break it down. When decreasing food intake while strength training, your body is less likely to shed muscle. However, the benefits of continuing to strength train will only be realized if you follow the third golden rule.
3. You must consume an adequate amount of protein.
The ideal amount of protein to consume when trying to lose fat is 0.7 grams per pound of bodyweight per day. This is true whether or not you are trying to gain muscle. For context, that means a 200 pound person will need roughly 140 grams of protein per day. This is quite a bit more than most people are used to eating. However, when your body receives the strength training stimulus telling it to build muscle, it needs something from which to build this muscle. Protein is that building block. Further, your body breaks down protein more slowly than fat or carbohydrates, so increasing protein intake will help control your hunger, thus making it easier to lose fat.
If you follow these three rules, it is certainly possible to build muscle and lose fat during the same time period. While your body cannot undergo both of those unique metabolic processes at the exact same moment in time, it certainly can do both throughout the day. That can lead to impressive results like the ones in this article. This photo shows a man who lost only 4 pounds of fat while gaining only 3 pounds of muscle. Clearly, when the weight lost is pure fat, a little goes a long way, and a lot goes a loooooong way!
By: Greg Pignataro
“You can’t ‘spot reduce’ body fat,” is a phrase you may have heard or read. What the heck does it mean? Put simply, you cannot choose where on your body visible fat will disappear when you lose weight. To illustrate with an all-too commonly seen example, this means you can do hundreds of crunches or planks each day and still not make a dent in the layer of fat covering your abdominal muscles.
Unfortunately, this belief that spot reduction is possible persists as stubbornly as a post-holiday belly bulge, particularly when it comes to training certain areas of the body. You know which ones I’m talking about. For women, it’s often the hips, buttocks, thighs, and back of the arms. For men, it’s the dreaded beer gut. Logically, we may understand that specifically exercising those areas won’t reduce the amount of fat there, yet in almost every single gym, you can find people with excess belly fat performing crunches until they’re red in the face. Why? It often has to do with misunderstandings of the following key concepts:
Let’s examine these in order, after a crucial bit of background information. Weightlifting has been an Olympic sport for men since the very first games, in 1896. However, it wasn’t added as an event for women until 2000. Let that sink in. Over 100 years passed before women could officially compete in the sport at an Olympic level. This meant that strong societal influences conspired for a long time to tell women that they shouldn’t lift weights, or that doing so was only for men. This couldn’t be further from the truth, and has thankfully changed quite a bit in the past few decades.
However, this welcome increase in the prevalence of women participating in strength training is still a relatively recent phenomenon. One consequence of this is that for too long, (and arguably still today), women are underrepresented in the world of strength training. Thus, many bad habits and/or male-centric tips persist. What does any of this have to do with spot-reducing fat? Well, it has everything to do with a misunderstanding around the first bullet point above...
Where Body Fat is Stored
For the average man, the main place his body stores fat is in his abdomen. As body fat percentage increases, he will start to see fat stored in his neck and face. With even higher levels of body fat, it will start to be stored nearly everywhere else, even the hands and feet.
However, below 25% body fat, which is pretty typical for the average man, a vast majority of body fat is stored in the midsection. Minimal fat is stored in the chest, and, unlike with women, at this level almost none is stored in the arms. Here’s why this matters.
This pattern of fat storage means that men who frequently exercise their upper body with common exercises like bench presses, biceps curls, shoulder presses, and triceps pulldowns, can easily see impressive gains in their upper body musculature, whether their body fat is 8% or 28%. Note the large pectorals, biceps, deltoids, and traps in the man on the left.
So, a simple association is made in the minds of most male lifters:
This fools people into thinking that spot reduction could work, because they see results of training a specific muscle group directly. In reality, all that’s happening is that they are building muscles in areas with minimal fat covering them. This doesn’t work for muscles in areas that commonly store fat, like the midsection.
This truth affects women differently than men, because the typical patterns of female fat distribution mean that most women have multiple areas of the body that store fat, rather than just the belly. To be sure, all strength training will make targeted muscle groups stronger and larger, but none of these changes will be visible, and won’t make someone look more “toned” if body fat percentage is too high. With that understood, let’s dive a bit more into why body fat percentage is so important.
Body Fat Percentage and Appearance
Body fat percentage is arguably the biggest controllable factor in determining your body’s appearance. The lower your body fat percentage, the more lean, dense, and toned your muscles will look. At very low levels of body fat (below 20% for women; below 12% for men) you’ll start to see the following:
Because males store such a high proportion of fat in their midsections, almost no man will have visible abdominal definition over 15% body fat. Abs don’t start to become extremely well defined until nearer to 12% body fat and lower. For women, 22% and 18% represent similar targets for visible abs. For that reason, you can train and strengthen your abs all you want, but the muscles won’t show until your body fat percentage is suitably low. This is also why people with extremely low body fat percentages who don’t do a whole lot of heavy strength training, like cross country runners, can have ridiculously defined midsections despite lower levels of muscle mass.
How This Specifically Affects Women
As mentioned previously, women tend to store fat in different parts of the body than men. Unlike men, fat storage isn’t concentrated in one area. The female body most readily stores fat in the hips, buttocks, thighs, and triceps. So, there are more areas where strength training alone isn’t enough to see results. Despite this, similarly incorrect assumptions commonly result. “If I want less fat on my arms and inner thighs, I must need to spend more time doing triceps kickbacks and working my legs on the adduction machine.” While strengthening these muscles absolutely is necessary, the hard work won’t become truly visible on most women until their body fat is reduced to the 20-25% range.
Intuitively, this can be hard to understand, and frustrating. If you know or are coached by a man who spends a lot of time doing biceps curls, and he has jacked arms, it’s easy to think that the same thing will work for you. Unfortunately, this simply isn’t true. Just like men need more than crunches to see that coveted six-pack, women who want a firm backside, toned thighs, and svelte arms need more than hip thrusts, squats, and triceps kickbacks. We must remember that gains in muscle will only show if that muscle isn’t covered by a layer of fat.
What’s the point of all this?
Simple. If you are trying to improve the appearance of certain areas of your body, reducing your overall body fat through proper nutritional practices will have a bigger effect than simply training particular muscles. Don’t get me wrong, strength training is still vital, as strength is the other major controllable determinant of your appearance. However, regardless of the size of your muscles, reducing your body fat percentage will go a long way to helping you achieve the sculpted results you want!
About the Author:
A former NCAA Division-I soccer player, Greg Pignataro is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), accredited by the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Previously, Greg gained experience in Corporate Wellness while working for Baxalta Incorporated, a Fortune 500 pharmaceutical company. For the Baxalta CFO, he designed and lead the “Functional Finance Fitness” program, a health and wellness initiative centered around joint health and maintaining mobility while working long hours at a desk. He has also worked as a Strength Coach at Acceleration Sports Performance near Chicago, where he helped supervise offseason training for athletes in the NFL, CFL, US Women's National Soccer Team, and NCAA Division-I football, baseball, and soccer. Greg’s work is soon to be featured in Weight Watchers, Healthline.com, and the My Fitness Pal Blog.
Jake Coyle, the Founder of GRINDSET FITNESS, is a certified National Academy of Sports Medicine Personal Trainer, a Corrective Exercise Specialist, a Precision Nutrition Nutritionist, with a Bachelor of Science degree in Exercise & Wellness, minor in Nutrition from Arizona State University.